Sunday, May 27, 2018

The Linguistic landscape of the Pre-Imperial era

The ancestors of the imperials came first to the marshy coasts of what later became Sueldon. This is reflected in the Paiodd word for ‘city’ mess, which, as noted by the famous imperial linguist Holwess Aliss, is likely derived from the same origin as the word meass itself, meaning ‘coast’. Those who settled along the Sueldonian coast later expanded west along the coast, north to the marshlands surrounding the Dog’s Ear Bay, and north into the plains and lowlands.
This eventually gave rise to several divergent languages among the coastal settlers, and in fact those who migrated to the lowlands began to diverge more greatly from their coastal ancestors, eventually establishing their own unique identity.The lowlanders also began to expand, further north and west into the forests and the highlands beyond. This established a still more divergent highland group, who also participated in subsequent expansion into other highland areas.
Thus, when Galeadd Viress rose to become emperor and united the various peoples under his nacent empire, there were many groups throughout the realm. These groups are descended from the major three: Coastal, Lowland, and Highland. A categorized list is as follows. Each group had its own unique culture and language, and thus this is also a list of the languages that existed before the empire. All are related, though divergent enough to be unintelligible to even the most closely neighboring groups. Within each major grouping, the language groups are listed from West to East, South to North.


- West
- Southwest
- N
- East
- West
- East
- South
- North




- West
- East
West Honalian

In addition, it must be noted that there were the remnants of indigenous groups, though these had been largely pushed to the margins of the land by the ever-expanding Coastal, Lowland, and Highland groups. There were also enclaves under Parinali influence, and especially to the East, the Barbarian groups, many of whom resist imperial rule to this day.
Viress succeeded in uniting all of the major groups related by common ancestry to his own Virestian stock, the Coastal and Lowland groups as well as the Highlanders, and was even successful in bringing some of the indigenous, Parinali, and the Westernmost of the Barbarian tribes into the fold.

Saturday, December 16, 2017

The origin of stem-changing nominal morphology in Paiodd

Paiodd has what I call verbal and nominal inflections, differing in both the quality of the root vowel and the voicing of the final consonant. The verbal might also be called 'adverbial' since those are the functions it covers - modifying the verb, while the nominal is essentially a genitive, modifying other nouns. I usually define them as indicating that the nouns is related to the verb or another noun, respectively, with additional suffixes specifying the nature of that relationship.

I surmise that the Canodd system was a little different, with what I am calling "open" and "closed" inflection, where open-inflection indicates that the noun is somehow dependent on another word, either noun or verb, while the closed-inflection indicates that the noun is the head of a noun-phrase. This often means it is an argument of the verb, but not necessarily.

As an example of how it works, if we were to say "The tall, ugly man's blue felt hat" the words for "tall" and "ugly" would be nouns in the open-inflection, while "man" would be closed-inflection. Likewise "blue" and "felt" would be open-inflection, while "hat" would be closed. The closed-inflection words are not necessarily arguments of the verb (though in context, it is likely that "hat" would be) and consequently both open-inflection and closed-inflection nouns can take the particles that specify the exact relationship between the inflected noun and whatever it modifies.

All that to say that the system is as follows:

Paiodd verbal-inflection < Canodd open-inflection

Verbal inflection marked by "weakened" vowel and voiced final consonant in Paiodd, while in Canodd, the open-inflection is the marked form, and closed is unmarked. The specific marker is a suffixed -ə, which triggers intervocalic voicing, accounting for the voicing change in the later verbal-inflection. I had been thinking of the vowel change as a sort of lenition, but I just consulted Trask on the matter, and, as I should have known, lenition is a process affecting consonants only.

Even so, the idea of hierarchy of vowels according to perceived “ strength” is a pretty essential one to Paiodd and its antecedents, and thus will remain.

Some examples:

Paiodd togg 'shape, form' VBL tag-, NML toc- < Canodd *tok, OPEN *tagə, CLSD *tok
P. budd 'blade' VBL bod- NML but- < C. *put, OPEN *pode, CLSD *put
P. cadd 'body of water' VBL ced-, NML cat- < C. *kat, OPEN *kedə, CLSD *kat

NOTE: This does not account for changes in word-initial consonants. I have a few ideas for that, but for the moment, I have simply assumed the underlying consonants are the voiceless equivalents of their Paiodd reflexes, which in some cases means no change.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Why Grammatical Gender?

It's been a while, but since this topic came up again on one of the facebook conlanging groups, I thought I'd fire up the old blogspot once again to bring you - a link to another blog! Seriously, though, give it a read. It has some good insights as to what grammatical gender does in languages, which might help you decide whether or not it's for you in your own conlanging.

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

FLEx for Conlangs, Part 3

Here's the third installment of my blog series on using SIL's Fieldworks Language Explorer for recording, organizing, and developing your conlang. It's the second video, but the recording ended up being over an hour long! To avoid boring you all to death, I broke it up into six shorter chunks. Below you will find links with short descriptions of which parts of the program each video deals with. I apologize in advance for choppy transitions and sudden beginnings - I am by no means a professional (or even amateur) video editor! All of these videos deal with the "Lexicon Edit" functions. Click on the numbers to follow the links. The next video(s) will focus on the "Text and Words" tab, and the very useful things you can do with it!

3-1: The Entries pane, organizing columns, filters

3-2: Entry pane, part 1. Covers everything in the Entry pane before "Senses".

3-3: Entry pane, part 2. Senses, Variants, Examples, etc.

3-4: Lexicon edit functions concluded. Adding words and associated functions.

3-5: Browse and Dictionary functions

3-6: Collect Words, Classified Dictionary, and Bulk Edit. Conclusion.

Saturday, September 12, 2015

FLEx for Conlangs, Part 2

This video features a general overview of what FLEx has to offer, and some thoughts on how they can be useful for conlangers. Check it out here:

FLEx for Conlangs: Overview

Next week, I'll specifically go over the Lexicon features, which is probably where most of you will spend the majority of your time.

Thursday, September 3, 2015

Using FLEx for Conlangs, Part 1: Importing a Lexicon

I hope that this posts and others in the series will be helpful to fellow conlangers. I've been using SIL's FLEx to keep track of my lexicon(s) for over a year now, and I've found it quite helpful. I hope to explain in more detail throughout this series the various features and how they can be used for conlanging. To start, though, you might be asking "What if I already have a lexicon in another format?" This first post in the series will hopefully help you overcome that obstacle.

Before we get to that, though, let me direct you to where you can obtain FLEx, for free (SIL's good like that, providing their software to the Linguistic community for free):

Once you've downloaded and installed FLEx, and created your project, you're ready to import your lexicon!

When you first open FLEx, you should see a screen like this (yours shouldn't have any previous projects, of course):

As you might have guessed, choose "Create a new project". Now you should see this:

You'll want to type in the name of your project, probably the name of your conlang, though you could always call it "Joe's Super-Awesome-Never-Before-Seen Basket Full of Amazingness", if you felt so inclined. I'm going to call mine "Sample Projectish":

Then click OK. But you're not done yet! Now you'll get this:

It's up to you, of course, but one feature of FLEx is that you can also categorize and take notes regarding cultural aspects. I've gone ahead and said OK to the Enhanced OCM for each of my projects. In a future post, I'll try to explain how some of that works, too. But for now, let's get into the program itself. Once you've made your choice regarding whether to include OCM or not, you should have a shiney new FLEx project open, that looks like this: 

You're now ready to import whatever lexicon you already have. To do so, in the top left hand corner, click File>Import, which should pull up this list:

Unfortunately, I'm not familiar with options other than Standard Format Lexicon. I probably should explore a bit more and figure things out, but for now, I'll share what I know, which involves importing data from an Excel chart. So, if I were you, I would go ahead and click on Standard Format Lexicon. This opens the following screen in the middle of your FLEx project:

It's recommended that you backup the project before continuing, but since you have nothing there, so far, I wouldn't worry about it too much. The next screen is where you want to worry. You have the option of choosing a file to use. Unfortunately, I haven't had much success with simply importing a straight up Excel file. But what has worked has been copying and pasting excel data into a plaintext file (.txt). Before doing that, however, you'll need to make sure you have appropriate markers in place, so that your data will go to the correct place in FLEx. This may depend on how complex your existing lexicon is. If you simply have the word in your conlang and a gloss in your native language, you only need to know the two markers \lx (which puts the word in your conlang into the 'Lexeme Form' column) and \ge (this stands for 'Gloss: English', so it will be different if your glosses are in your native language, but it shouldn't make too much of a difference - this marker will send your glosses to the 'Gloss' column). 

If you do have more complex entries in your existing lexicon, there is a list of appropriate markers available here:
A list of mapping markers is available on page 4 of the document. You can include things such as part of speech, example sentences, and so on.

Using the appropriate markers, I would insert a column before each section, write in the appropriate marker into the first cell, and copy and paste it into the rest of the column. That should look something like this (These examples are from Omaya, one of my conlangs):

From this point, it gets a little bit labor intensive. If you have a huge lexicon, I'm sorry (the first time I did this was with a lexicon of over 3000 words)! There may be an easier way to do it, but I haven't figured it out yet (or maybe I did with that first time, but it's been a while and I've quite forgotten!).

The next step is to copy and paste your Excel data into a plaintext file. Alternatively, you could simply save it as a plain text file (.txt). Now the laborious part: I haven't been able to get the import to work without having the \lx word directly above the \ge gloss! That is I have had to go in and press  enter before every single instance of \lx! That is, given a text file that has the following:

\ge "all, every" \lx la

\ge and \lx h'
\ge animal \lx inwalu
\ge appearance \lx holu
\ge arrow \lx arwu
\ge ask \lx se

I have had to make it look like this, instead:

\ge "all, every"
\lx la
\ge and
\lx h'
\ge animal
\lx inwalu
\ge appearance
\lx holu
\ge arrow
\lx arwu
\ge ask
\lx se

Once you've done that horribly tedious, intensive part, things are much easier. Save the .txt file where you can find it again, and return to FLEx. Click 'Next' after the initial import screen, and you should see one that looks like this:

Click on the square with the ellipsis (...) and find the appropriate file. Since it's a text file, you'll have to choose the scrolldown option 'All Files':

Find your Text file, select it, then click 'Next' (you could really go ahead and click 'Finish', because this should work at this point, but you might want to make sure the markers you've used show up in the 'Key Markers' screen).

On the 'Content Mapping' page, and the  'Key markers' page, make sure all of the markers you're using show up, like so: 

And the next page, like so:

The next page won't have anything on it, so you might as well go ahead and click 'Finish'. You should now see an option to 'Generate Report', like this:

Go ahead and click on that (you have no other option, anyway), and you should be taken to a webpage that gives you either the correct number of items that you have in your lexicon, or an error message. If it's an error, you might have to adjust some settings, and I don't necessarily know what they are. It should be fine, though, and you should see this: 

If this is what you see and everything is in order, go back into FLEx and click 'Next', then 'Finish' (if you don't want to see the same report again, click on the checkmark in the box that reads 'Display final report' before you click 'Finish'). You should see a processing bar, then, voila! your FLEx project is filled with all your beautiful words!

I hope this is helpful to all my fellow conlangers out there! If you have any questions or, even better, if you find a way to make this process easier, let me know in the comments!

Next post, I'll go over some of the basic features of FLEx, including how to enter new words, the fields in an entry, etc. Or maybe it would be better to do a general overview first. I'll think about it and get back to you soon!

EDIT: J Diego Suárez Hernandez provides this tip:

There is a trivial way of adding newlines (~ pressing 'enter') before every \lx with many text editors.

If you are using Notepad++ (a free lightweight text editor similar to Windows' Notepad but with tons of useful features, like being able to edit se
veral documents in tabs on the same window), you have to:
- copy your text (or table) to it,
- go to 'Replace' in the 'Search' menu (or press its keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+H)
- Search for " \lx" (space, backslash, l, x; without the quotes)
- Write "\n\lx "(backslash, n, backslash, l, x)
- Press the "Replace" all button.

This will replace every occurrence of a space followed by \lx with a newline (represented as "\n") and "\lx" at once.

This can also be done in other editors. For instance, OpenOffice Writer and LibreOffice Writer let you do the same but you have to mark "regular expresions" under the "more options" tab in the search&replace dialogue.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Aitta Verb Derivations Charted!

After working on developing the derivational morphology of verbs in Aitta, I decided to chart out all the verbs I have so far, and their derivative forms, so that I could see what vocabulary I already have. I will need to replace some other words in the lexicon now that I've worked this system out more fully. I've also realized that the form which adds an argument, which I had been thinking of as applicative (when it didn't make an intransitive verb transitive), can also be causative, depending on the semantics of the verb involved. Here's the chart! If you spot any errors or have any suggestions for more specific meanings, or if you think an additive form should be applicative rather than causative, or vice versa, let me know! Some of the verbs that started out passive don't have very good definitions in their subtracted argument form, which is something I need to work on.

Nominal derivative
Subordinate form
Subordinate derivative
Default transitivity
Chi – chew
Chin – chewing
Ichcha – tooth, chewer
Applicative or Causative
Chia – cause to chew
Chian – causing to chew (possibly used to describe food as chewy)
Ijan – what causes to chew
Aji – be chewed
Ajin – being chewed
Aichcha – that which is chewed

Chiga – bear children
Chigan – child bearing
Ichkan – mother

Chigo – cause to bear children, impregnate
Chigon – pregnancy, impregnation
Ichkon – father, semen

Ajiga – be born, be pregnant
Ajigan – birth, pregnancy
Aichkan – child

Chitas – scratch
Chitsa – scratch (n.)
Ichtasso – claw, scratcher

Chitazo – cause to scratch
Chitso – causing to scratch
Ichtazon – what causes to scratch, an itch (?)

Ajitas – be scratched
Ajitsa – being scratched
Aichtasso – what is scratched

Cho – pass time
Chon – passing time, passage of time, time, moment, period of time
Ochcha – diversion, occupation, that which passes time

Choa – cause to pass time, pass time for something
Choan – causing to pass time, occupation
Ojan – diversion, occupation, that which causes time to pass.

Ajo – (time) be passed
Ajon – time passed, the past
Wochcha – time passed, the past

Choma – be much
Choman – much, many things
Ochman – much, many people/things

Chomo – cause to be much, increase
Chomon – an increase
Ochmon – rate, that which increases

Ajoma – be increased
Ajoman – an increase?
Wochman – that which is increased

kina – wrap, encircle
kinan – a circle
Ingan – a belt, bracelet, ring

kino – cause to encircle, or encircle, wrap for something
kinon – causing to encircle, figuratively engagement to be married?
Ingon – an engagement ring or bracelet?

Agina – being wrapped, encircled
Aginan – surrounded?
Aingan – that which is surrounded, a glade, meadow, island(?), clearing

Halo – light a fire
Halon – lighting, ignition
Ahlon – fire

Halwa – cause to light, light for something, use flint or other source of ignition to light a fire
Halwan – causing to light, lighting for something, the use of flint to start a fire
Ahlwan – that which causes to light, spark, match, flint

Ihalo – be lit
Ihalon – being lit, burning and giving light or warmth
Yahlon – a fire, firewood, kindling

Hanok – begin
Hango – beginning
Ahnokka – beginner, initiate (an army rank, perhaps)

Hanoga – cause to begin, beginning of something
Hangwa – initiation, beginning of something
Ahngoan – initiator, that which causes to begin, motive, purpose

Ihanok – be begun
Ihango – being begun
Yahngon – that which is begun

Hi – shine
Hin – shining, light
Ihha – that which shines, ray or beam of light, light

Hia – cause to shine, reflect, shine for/off something
Hian – reflection, causing to shine
Ihan – that which reflects, pool of water, mirror

Ahi – be shone
Ahin – being shone, reflection, glaring
Aihha – that which is shone, reflection, glare

Hila – emerge
Hilan – emergence
Ihlan – that which emerges, fig: revelation?

Hilo – cause to emerge, pull or drive out, fig: reveal
Hilon – causing to emerge, revelation
Ihlon – that which causes to emerge, push, pull, drive, motivation, desire, fig: revelatory vision

Ahila – be emerged, fig: be revealed
Ahilan – being emerged or revealed, fig: spiritual truth
Aihlan – that which is emerged or revealed, fig: spiritual truth

Ka – write
Kan – writing
Akko – that which writes, writer, author, stylus

Keo – cause to write, write for/to someone
Keon – writing for someone, message
Agon – that which writes for someone, secretary

Iga – be written
Igan – being written
Yakko – that which is written, book, letter

Kabi – enact
Kabin – enactment, action
Akpin – that which enacts, actor

Kabya – cause to enact, decree
Kabyan – causing to enact, force of law, authority of a decree
Akpian – that which causes to enact, decree, law, lawmaker

Igabi – be enacted
Igabin – being enacted, adherence to decrees or laws?
Yakpin – that which is enacted, law, action, behavior

Kali – be long
Kalin – length
Aglin – that which is long

Kalya – lengthen, cause to be long, stretch
Kalyan – stretch, lengthening, extent
Aglian – that which lengthens, stretch, extender

Igali – be lengthened
Igalin – being lengthened, extending, extent
Yaglin – that which is lengthened or extended

Kalot – collect, gather
Kaldo – collection, gathering
Aklotta – collector, gatherer, that which collects or gathers, meeting, council?

Kaloda – cause to collect or gather
Kaldoa – causing to collect or gather
Aklodan – that which causes to collect or gather, meeting, council, or perhaps more an invitation to a meeting or council

Igalot – be collected, gathered
Igaldo – being collected or gathered
Yaklotta – collection, meeting, council

Karo - work
Karon – working, job, work
Agron – worker

Karwa – cause to work, employ
Karwan – employment, conscription
Agroan – employer, supervisor, chief, foreman

Igaro – be worked, employed
Igaron – job, being worked, being employed
Yagron – employee, that which is worked, that which is employed

Kazo – ask
Kazon – question
Akson – asker, questioner, fig: spiritual seeker

Kazwa – cause to ask, ask for something
Kazwan – request
Akswan – that which requests, requestor, inquiry

Igazo – be asked
Igazon – being asked, questioning
Yakson – that which is asked, questionee, person questioned or asked

Kila – belong
Kilan – belonging, possession
Iglan – possession, that which belongs, territory (of a nation, for instance)

Kilo – cause to belong, acquire(?)
Kilon – causing to belong, acquisition, purchase
Iglon – that which causes to belong, acquisition, seller, deed/title

Agila – be acquired(?)
Agilan – acquisition
Aiglan – that which is acquired, item under negotiation

Kinar – bring
Kinda/kinra/kirna – bringing, offering (?)
Ingarro – bringer, offerer

Kinaro – cause to bring, bring for something, offer
Kinaron – offering
Ingaron – offerer, worshipper

Aginar – be brought
Aginda/aginra/agirna – being offered
Aingarro – offering, that which is offered

Kinat – connect
Kinda – connection
Ingatto – that which connects

Kinado – cause to connect, attach
Kinadon – attaching, attachment
Ingadon – that which causes to connect, attacher

Aginat – be connected
Aginatto – connection, attachment
Aingatto – attachment, that which is attached, connected

Ko – have
Kon – having, possession
Okka – owner, possessor

Kwa – cause to have, give
Kwan – causing to have
Ogan – that which causes to have

Ago – be had
Agon - Being had
Wokka – that which is owned, had, or possessed

Koda – cut
Kodan – cut, cutting
Oktan – cutter, knife, sword

Kodo – cause to cut, sharpen
Kodon – sharpening
Okton – sharpener

Agoda – be cut
Agodan – being cut
Woktan – cut (of meat or perhaps a minor injury)

Koja – be poor
Kojan – poverty
Okchan – poor person

Kojo – impoverish, cause to be poor
Kojon – impoverishment
Okchon – that which impoverishes, bad luck, or reckless spending

Agoja – be made poor
Agojan – being made poor
Wokchan – someone made poor

Kola – become angry
Kolan – anger
Oglan – angry person

Kolo – to anger, enrage
Kolon – causing anger
Oglon – trigger for anger, cause of anger

Agola – be made angry
Agolan – being made angry
Woglan – someone made angry

La – to liberate
Lan – liberation
Allo - liberator

Lo – to liberate from, to cause to liberate
Lon – cause of liberation, something that is liberated from?
Alon – that which causes to liberate, that which is liberated from, slavery, bonds

Ila – be liberated
Ilan – being liberated, liberation, freedom
Yallo – freeman, that which is liberated

Lado – be tall
Ladon – tallness, height
Aldon – that which is tall, tall person, giant, tower

Ladwa – cause to be tall, heighten, increase height
Ladwan – causing to be tall, erection, construction, or physical growth, growth spurt
Aldoan – that which causes to be tall, heightens, erects, so perhaps used of construction equipment

Ilado – be heightened
Iladon – being heightened, construction
Yaldon – that which is heightened, made tall, a building or a structure, or a growing young man, a tower

Lagir – require, cost
Lagri – requirement, cost
Algirra – that which requires or cost something, an item for sale or under negotiation

Lagira – cause to require or cost, to set a price
Lagria – causing to require or cost
Algiran – that which causes to require or cost, price setting, market fluctuations

Ilagir – to be costly
Ilagri – being costly, treasure
Yalgirra – that which is costly, treasure, wealth

Lida – to sell
Lidan – selling, sale
Ildan – seller, vendor

Lido – cause to sell, sell to someone
Lidon – sale to someone
Ildon – seller to someone

Alida – be sold
Alidan – being sold
Aildon – something being sold, product, good(s)

Loja – make jewelry, shape or cut, craft
Lojan – jewelry-making, jewel-crafting
Oljan – jeweler

Lojo – cause to make jewelry
Lojon – commissioning of jewelry
Oljon – customer requesting a special commission

Aloja – be crafted (used of jewelry, or perhaps figuratively to describe a woman’s beauty)
Alojan – being crafted
Woljan – jewelry, that which is crafted

Lora – to rule, have and exercise authority
Loran – rule, authority
Oldan – ruler, king

Loro – to cause to rule, to inaugurate, crown, give power to, OR to rule over something, to have specific authority
Loron – inauguration, coronation OR designated authority, governorship
Oldon – divine right, one who presides over a coronation OR one who has specific authority, governor, minister

Alora – To be ruled
Aloran – subjection, submission
Woldan – subject

Lorak – be cruel
Lorga – cruelty, cruel deed or action
Ollakko – cruel person

Lorago – be cruel to someone, do cruelty to someone
Lorgo – cruel action intended to hurt someone
Oldagon – someone who intentionally hurts people

Alorak – suffer cruelty
Alorga – suffering cruelty
Woldakko – someone who suffers cruelty, victim

Mabor – to compare
Mabro – comparison
Amborra – one who compares

Mabora – to compare for something or someone, to cause to compare
Mabroa – causing to compare, a comparison for a reason or for someone
Amboran – one who compares for a reason, one who causes to compare

Imabor – be compared
Imabro – something compared, metaphor or simile
Yamborra – something which is compared, subject of a metaphor or simile

Mirap – to promise
Mirba – a promise
Imrappo – that which promises, an oath, oathtaker

Mirabo – to make a promise to someone, to get engaged to be married
Mirboa – a promise made to someone, engagement to be married, commitment
Imrabon – fiancé(e), one who proposes marriage, one who makes a promise to someone, one who is committed

Amirap – to be promised, to be engaged
Amirba – engagement
Aimrappo – fiancé(e)

Mirat – to stream, flow
Mirda – stream, flow
Imratto – river, water course

Mirado – cause to stream, flow, irrigate, initiate a flow of water
Mirdo – irrigation, causing water to flow
Imradon – irrigation ditch, something that causes water to flow, aqueduct

Amirat – be streamed
Amirda – water that is streamed, current
Aimratto – water from an aqueduct or irrigation ditch, current

Mo – to be located
Mon – place, location
Omma – place, site, land, address (?)

Moa – to locate
Moan – settlement, causing to be located
Oman – pathfinder, navigator, map, map user

Amo – to be placed, found in a specific place
Amon – settlement, location in a specific place, habitat
Womma – something or someone located in a specific place, resident, denizen

Moda – to take
Modan – taking, acquisition, theft (implication that it was not previously owned or the owner was unknown)
Omdan – thief, someone who takes

Modo – to cause to take, to take from someone
Modon – theft, kidnapping
Omdon – thief, someone who takes from someone

Amoda – to be taken
Amodan – being taken, capture
Womdan – someone or something taken, spoils, booty, captive

Moga – to come
Mogan – arrival, coming
Ongan – Someone who arrives, arriving passenger or traveler

Mogo – to cause to come, attract, woo or seduce, cause to enter, invite
Mogon – attraction, entrance, invitation
Ongon – attraction (place or feature that attracts), desirable attribute, seduction, invitation, inviter

Amoga – to be come, to come (without reference to the place)
Amogan – coming, arrival, being come
Wongan – someone or something which is come, visitor

Nabo – to open
Nabon – opening
Anbon – opener, opening in something, lid or clasp

Nabwa – to cause to open, open to something
Nabwan – opening in something, causing to open
Ambwan – opener, that which opens to something, door, portal

Inabo – to be opened
Inabon – being opened
Yambon – that which is opened, open container or vessel

Nal – to pertain to
Nallo – pertinence, belonging to, ownership
Ando – That which pertains to something or someone, possession, belonging

Nalo – to cause to pertain to someone
Nalon – causing to pertain to someone, deed, right of ownership
Andon – deed, title

Inal – to be owned
Inalo – ownership
Yallon – possession, belonging, that which is owned

Nagor – to be able
Nagro – power, ability
Angorra – Able person, powerful person

Nagora – to give ability to, to teach a skill
Nagroa – teaching, instruction, apprenticeship
Angroan – teacher, instructor, master (to an apprentice)

Inagor – to be given ability, to be taught or instructed
Inagro – experience, lesson, learning, apprenticeship
Yangorra – Apprentice, learner, student

Namok – to command
Nango – command, orders
Angokka – commander

Namoga – to give command to someone
Nangoa – giving command to someone, appointment
Angogan – appointer, someone or something which gives command to someone, letter of appointment to command

Inamok – to be commanded
Inango – being commanded, army ranks
Yangokka – troops, people under another’s command

Naro – to fill
Naron – filling, fullness
Arron – servant, someone who fills, stuffing, fig: wealth and extravagance

Narwa – to cause to fill, to pour or to stuff
Narwan – causing to fill, filling, sustenance
Arroan – That which causes to fill, satisfaction, fig: wealth

Inaro – to be filled, to be full
Inaron – being full, satisfaction
Yarron – someone or something which is full or satisfied, fig: wealthy person

Narop – to burn
Narbo – burning
Arroppa – fire, flame, that which burns, torch

Naroba – to cause to burn, to light, ignite
Naroban – lighting, ignition of a fire or flame
Arroban – igniter, kindling, flint

Inarop – to be lit, to be burnt
Inarbo – being burnt
Yarroppa – someone or something that is burnt, fuel for a fire

Ni – to be instead
Nin – contrast
Inna – that which is instead, a contrast, contraster

Nia – to substitute
Nian – substitute
Inan – substitute

Ani – to represent
Anin – representation
Ainna – Representative, example

Nigam – to imagine
Nigma – imagination
Ingammo – visionary, creator, artist

Nigamo – to cause to imagine, to imagine for something or someone, to see a prophetic vision, to envision
Nigmo – vision, prophecy
Ingamon – prophet, visionary, oracle, or perhaps narcotics that induce prophetic visions

Anigam – to be imagined
Anigma – an idea, a plan, a vision (in the sense of an idea with an end goal, or the ability to envision an end goal)
Aingammo – idea, plan, goal, purpose

Nija – to shine
Nijan – shining, light, brilliance
Injan – lamp, torch, something that shines

Nijo – to polish, cause to shine
Nijon – polish, brilliance
Injon – polish, polishing agent, polisher

Anija – to be polished or shined
Anijan – being polished or shined
Ainjan – something polished or shined, metal, bronze(?)

Nilak – to clean
Nilga – cleaning, cleanliness
Illakko – cleaner, maid

Nilago – to cause to clean, to clean for something or someone, to clean in order to prepare for an event
Nilgo – causing to clean, cleaning in preparation for an event
Illagon – one who cleans to prepare for an event

Anilak – to be cleaned, to be redeemed, forgiven
Anilakko – being cleaned, redemption
Aillakko – one who is cleaned, a believer

Nimak – to walk
Ninga – walking, a walk
Innakko - walker

Nimago – to walk to somewhere, to cause to walk
Ningo – a path
Innagon – seeker, someone who walks towards a goal

Animak – to be walked
Aninga – being walked, way
Ainnakko – something walked, a path, a way

Ninach – to assassinate
Ninja – assassination
Innachcho – assassin

Ninajo – to cause to assassinate, to order an assassination, to call a hit
Ninjo – order for assassination, hit
Innajon – hitman, hired assassin

Aninach – to be assassinated
Aninja – being assassinated, the action of a hit on someone
Ainnachcho – target of assassination

No – to be single, to be one
Non – one
Onna – that which is one, a single item or person

Noa – cause to be single, unite
Noan – unity, singleness
Onan – uniter, one who unites, or one who causes to be single

Ano – being united, made single
Anon – unity, the result of being united
Wonna – that which is united, group, body, confederation

Noda – to dawn
Nodan - dawning
Ondan – dawn, new day

Nodo – to cause to dawn, to dawn for something
Nodon – dawning of something, beginning
Ondon – new dawn, new beginning of something

Anoda – to be dawned
Anodan – being dawned, beginning, initiation
Wondan – beginning, dawning, initiation

Pa – to see
Pan – sight, vision
Appo – seer, one who sees, fig: eye

Po – to cause to see, fig: to open the eyes
Pon – sudden vision, insight
Abon – that which causes to see, fig: an awakening, an epiphany

Iba – to be seen, to be visible
Iban – being seen, visibility
Yappo – that which is seen, a vision, a sight

Pado – to carry
Padon – carrying
Avton – bearer, carrier

Padwa – to cause to carry, to load, to burden
Padwan – load, burden, charge
Avtwan – loader, burdener

Ibado – to be carried
Ibadon – being carried, load, burden
Yavton – burden, load, charge, that which is carried

Pago – to run
Pagon – running
Avkon – runner, messenger

Pagwa – to cause to run, to frighten, to pursue
Pagwan – fright, pursuit
Avkwan – fightener, pursuer

Ibago – to be run
Ibagon – being run
Yavkon – that which is run, a race, a route

Palo – to love
Palon – love
Ablon – lover

Palwa – to cause to love, to attract, to enthrall, to flirt
Palwan – passion, attraction
Abloan – attracter, flirt, love spell

Ibalo – to be loved
Ibalon – being loved
Yablon – beloved, object of love or desire

Palom – value
Palmo – value
Ablomma – valuer

Paloma – to evaluate
Paloman – evaluation
Abloman – evaluator

Ibalom – to be valued
Ibalmo – being valued
Yablomma – that which is valued, wealth, riches, treasure

Pano – to be all
Panon – eternity, all of something
Abnon – all of something

Panwa – to be made all, to complete
Panwan – completion, wholeness
Abnoan – completer

Ibano – to be made all
Ibanon – being made all
Yabnon – that which is made complete, a set, a full group

Paro – to be double
Paron – two
Abron – a pair, a couple

Parwa – to double, to make double
Parwan – doubling, coupling
Abroan – doubler, coupler, fig: marriage vows or the sexual act

Ibaro – to be made double
Ibaron – being made double
Yabron – that which is made double, a couple, fig: sexual partners

Pi – to wear, to be decorated
Pin – wearing, vestment, clothing, all that a person wears to decorate themselves – clothing, make-up, jewelry and accessories
Ippa – wearer

Pia – to decorate
Pian – decoration
Iban – decorator

Abi – to be decorated
Abin – a decorated object or item, or home
Aiban – a decorated item, object, or home

Pida – to read
Pidan – reading, fig: education
Ivtan – reader

Pidai – to cause to read, to educate
Pidain – causing to read, educating
Ivtain – educator, professor

Abida – to be read
Abidan – being read
Aivtan – that which is read, a book, a piece of writing, literature

Piga – to bake
Pigan – baking
Ivkan – baker

Pigo – to cause to bake, to bake in an oven
Pigon – baking
Ivkon – oven

Abiga – to be baked
Abigan – being baked, baked goods
Aivkan – baked goods, bread

Po – to owe
Pon – debt
Oppa – debtor

Pwa – to cause to owe, to credit
Pwan – credit
Oban – creditor

Abo – to be owed
Abon – debt
Woppa – that which is owed, credited amount

Poba – to buy
Poban – buying, shopping
Ovpan – buyer

Pobo – to cause to buy, negotiate
Pobon – negotiation, business, transaction
Ovpon – negotiator, that which causes to buy

Aboba – to be bought
Aboban – being bought
Wovpan – that which is bought, item under negotiation, item for sale, product, wares

Polak – to block
Polga – blocking, a block, a blockade
Oblakko – Blocker, wall or obstacle, barricade

Polago – to cause to block
Polagon – blockade, barricade
Oblagon – barricade, barrier

Ubolak – to be blocked
Ubolga – being blocked
Woblakko – That which is blocked

Poza – to show
Pozan – demonstration, display
Ovzan – display, demonstrator

Pozo – to cause to show, to show to someone, to reveal
Pozon – revelation, causing to show, showing to someone
Ovzon – revealer, that which causes to show

Uboza – to be shown
Ubozan – being shown, displayed
Wovzan – item on display, that which is shown

Ra – to cry
Ran – crying, tears, sadness
Arro – crier, weeper, sad person

Ro – to cause to cry, fig: to sadden
Ron – sadness, cause of crying
Aron – that which causes to cry, sadness, sad person

Ira – to be cried, to be wept
Iran – being cried or wept
Yarro – that which is cried or wept, fig: tears, sorrow

Rabo – to fear, to be afraid
Rabon – fear
Arbon – one who fears

Rabwa – to cause to fear, to frighten
Rabwa – fright
Arbwan – one who frightens, a monster or demon, a bogeyman

Irabo – to be feared
Irabon – being feared
Yarbon – that which is feared, monster, demon, bogeyman

Rabol – to prefer
Rablo – preference
Arbolla – Preferer

Rabola – to cause to prefer, to suggest a better option, to influence, to advise
Rabolan – causing to prefer, suggestion of a better option, advice, influence
Arbolan – suggester, one who suggests a better option, advisor

Irabol – to be preferred
Irablo – preference
Yarbolla – that which is preferred, preference

Radi – to envy
Radin – envy
Ardin – envier, jealous person

Radya – cause to envy
Radyan – causing to envy
Ardyan – causer of envy, a person, especially a woman, to whom everyone looks up, but also envies and seeks to emulate

Iradi – to be envied
Iradin – being envied
Yardin – one who is envied

Radis  - to be a female relative of
Ratsi – female relationship, sisterhood
Ardissa – female relative, sister, aunt, female cousin

Radiza – to cause to be a female relative of (referring to marriage making a spouse’s female relatives one’s own)
Radizan – in-law relationship
Ardizan – female in-laws

Iradis – to be related (of a female)
Iratsi – being related
Yardissa – one who is related, sister, aunt, cousin

Radon – to enter, to go in
Razno – entering, entrance
Ardonna – enterer, entrance

Radona – to cause to enter, to push, to urge on
Radonan – causing to enter, urging
Ardonan – urger, encourager

Iradon – to be entered
Irazno – being entered
Yardonna – entrance

Ranos – sit
Ranossa – sitting, seat
Arnossa – sitter

Ranoza – to cause to sit, to set down
Ranozan – causing to sit, setting down
Arnozan – something set down

Iranos – to be sat in, to be set down
Iranossa – being sat in, being set down, seat or chair
Yarnossa – that which is sat in, chair or seat, that which is set down

Ri – to be (to be equivalent, I am a doctor)
Rin – being, position or identification as someone or something
Irra – being, thing, person

Ria – to cause to be equivalent, to identify, to equate with
Rian – identification or equation of something with something else
Iran –that which identifies or equates, trait, stereotype

Ari – to be equated
Arin – being equated
Airra – that which is equated or identified with something else

Riga – to manipulate with the fingers, to pick, to pluck, to point
Rigan – picking, plucking, pointing
Irgan – finger

Rigo – to cause to use the fingers, to use the fingers for or on something
Rigon – causing to use the fingers
Irgon – one who causes to use the fingers, fruit to be picked or plucked, a plucked instrument, fingerholes in a flute, etc.

Ariga – to be manipulated by the fingers
Arigan – being manipulated by the fingers
Airgan – that which is manipulated with the fingers, fruit to be plucked or picked, a stringed instrument, a handle on a cup, door, or other item

Rogal – to be colored
Rogla – color
Orgallo – color, that which colors, dye, paint, colored make-up

Rogalo – cause to be colored, to color
Rogalon – causing color, dying agent
Orgalon – dye agent, dyer, painter

Urogal – caused to be colored
Urogla -
Worgallo – that which is made to be colored, a painting, a canvas, cloth for dying, etc.

Rola – advance, go forward
Rolan – advancement, direction forwards
Orlan – advance troops

Rolo – cause to advance, order to advance
Rolon – orders to advance
Orlon – commander, one who give orders to advance

Urola – be advanced, be forward
Urolan – forward
Worlan – one who is advanced, one who is forward, forward line of a battle formation, or an individual soldier therein.

Roma – to kill
Roman – killing, murder
Orman – killer, murderer

Romo – to cause to kill
Romon – causing to kill
Ormon – one who causes to kill

Aroma – to be killed, to die
Aroman – death
Worman – dead person, corpse

Rom – be more
Romma – more

Roma – increase
Roman – increase

Urom – be increased
Uromma – being increased, expansion, population

Rozap – to please
Rospa – pleasure
Orzappo – one who pleases, fig: a prostitute, or a desirable woman

Rozabo – to cause to please
Rozabon – causing to please
Orzabon – one who causes to please, fig: a pimp, perhaps

Urozap – to be pleased
Urospa – being pleased
Worzappo – one who is pleased, fig: client of a prostitute

Sa – to be not
San – negation, denial
Assi – negator

Sai – to cause to be not, to negate to deny
Sain – denial, causing to be not
Azin – one who denies

Iza – to be denied
Izan – being denied
Yassi – one who is denied

Sago – to give
Sagon – giving, fig: generosity
Askon – one who gives, fig: a generous person

Sagwa – to cause to give
Sagwan – causing to give
Askwan – one who causes to give

Izago – to be given
Izagon – being given
Yaskon – gift, one or something which is given

Si – to be half
Sin – half
Issa – a half

Sia – to halve, divide in two
Sian – division into two
Izan – divider

Azi – to be divided
Azin – division
Aissa – that which is halved, that which is divided

Sida – to be a complete set
Sidan – complete set, ten
Istan – complete set, a full group

Sido – to cause to be a complete set, to finish, complete
Sidon – a finished, completed set
Iston – one who completes or finishes a set

Azida – to be completed
Azidan – being completed
Aistan – one which is completed, a multiple of ten(?)

Sija – to think, to decide, to realize
Sijan – thought, decision, realization
Ischan – thinker, decider

Sijo – to cause to think, to puzzle
Sijon – a puzzle, an enigma
Ischon – puzzle, riddle, enigma

Azija – to be thought, decided, realized
Azijan – a decision reached, a thought or idea
Aischan – thought or idea

Sirat – to desire
Sirda – desire
Isratto – one who desires

Sirado – to cause to desire, to long for
Siradon – desire, longing
Isradon – one who causes desire, object of longing

Azirat – to be desired
Aziratto – being desired
Aisratto – one who is desired

So – to be (have the quality of)
Son – quality or attribute
Ossa – one who has a particular quality or attribute

Swa – to cause to have the quality or attribute of, to transform, change into
Swan – causing to have the quality or attribute of, transformation, change
Ozan – one who causes to have the quality or attribute of, magical force that cause a transformation

Uzo – be made to have specific attributes
Uzon – being made to have specific attributes, transformation, change into something
Wossa – transformer, changeling, one who is transformed

Sobas – to marry
Sopsa – marriage
Ospasso – spouse (used on the wedding day and during the early years of marriage)

Sobazo – to cause to marry, to marry (as in what a priest does)
Sobazon – marriage
Ospazon – officiant at a wedding

Uzobas – be married
Uzopsa – being married, marriage
Wospasso – spouse, husband or wife (used after time has passed being married)

Sola – forgive a debt, redeem
Solan – cancellation of a debt, redemption
Oslan – one who cancels a debt, redeemer

Solo – cause to forgive a debt
Solon – causing to forgive a debt
Oslon – one who causes to forgive a debt

Uzola – to be cancelled or forgiven of a debt
Uzolan – being cancelled of a debt, redemption, freedom
Woslan – one who is redeemed or forgiven

Tabo – to live
Tabon – life
Azpon – living thing, animal

Tabwa – to cause to live, to give life, to nurture
Tabwan – causing to live, nurture
Azpwan – that which causes to live, that which gives life

Idabo – to be given life
Idabon – being given life
Yazpon – one given life, a newborn, a young animal

Tagi – to behave
Tagin – behavior
Azkin – one who behaves

Tagya – to cause to behave, to influence behavior
Tagyan – influence on behavior
Azkyan – one who influences behavior, either positively or negatively, a friend

Idagi – to be behaved
Idagin – behavior (in the sense of what is behaved, good or bad)
Yazkin – a specific behavior

Tanok – to count
Tango – counting
Aznokka – counter, accountant

Tanoga – to count for something, to cause to count
Tanogan – counting for something, causing to count
Aznogan – accountant, designated accountant

Idanok – to be counted
Idango – being counted
Yaznokka – number

Tarok – to be great
Targo – greatness, glory, renown
Adrokka – great person, famous person, hero

Taroga – cause to be great, to praise
Tarogan – causing to be great, praise
Ardrogan – that which causes to be great, heroic deed, famous act, valor or worth

Idarok – to be made great
Idarokka – being made great
Yadrokka – one who is made great, object of praise

Tano – to hunt
Tanon – hunting, a hunt
Aznon – hunter

Tanwa – to cause to hunt, to hunt for a reason
Tanwan – causing to hunt
Aznwan – one who causes to hunt, one who hunts something specific

Idano – to be hunted
Idanon – being hunted
Yaznon – prey, quarry, that which is hunted

Tazo – be quick
Tazon – quickness, speed
Atson – one who is quick

Tazwa – to quicken
Tazwan – quickening, hastening
Atswan – one who quickens or hastens

Idazo – be hastened or quickened
Idazon – being quickened
Yatson – one who is hastened

Ti – to say, speak
Tin – speech
Itta – sayer, speaker

Tia – to address, to speak to or for someone or something specific, to orate
Tian – an address, an oration
Idan – orator, speaker

Adi – to be spoken
Adin – being spoken, speech, word, language
Aitta – language

Tigar – to extract
Tigra – extraction
Izkarro – extractor

Tigaro – to cause to extract, to extract from something
Tigaron – extraction from something
Izkaron – that which extracts from something

Adigar – to be extracted
Adigro – being extracted, extract
Aizkarro – extract, especially used for olive oil

Tina – to stand
Tinan – standing, position
Iznan – one who stands, post

Tino – to cause to stand, support
Tinon – support
Iznon – support (beams or other structural supports), supporter

Adina – to be stood
Adinan – being stood
Aiznan – something that is stood, an altar, a memorial

Tira – to be triple
Tiran – three
Idran – three of something, group of three

Tiro – to triple, to cause to triple
Tiron – tripling
Idron – that which triples

Adira – to be tripled
Adiran – being tripled
Aidran – that which is tripled

Tirap – to depart, to leave
Tirba – departure
Idrappo – departing person, ship, or caravan

Tirabo – to cause to depart, to depart for another place
Tirabon – cause of departure, destination
Idrabon – one who sets out, a traveler with a goal, a pilgrim

Adirap – to be left, to be departed
Adirba – being left, being departed from, origin
Aidrappo – origin, place of origin

Tizap – to visit
Tispa – a visit
Itsappo – visitor

Tizabo – to cause to visit, to invite
Tizabon – invitation
Itsabon – inviter

Adizap – to be visited
Adispa – being visited, a visit (if you are the one being visited)
Aitsappo – one who is visited, a tourist attraction

To – to exist
Ton – existence
Otta – one who exists

Twa – to cause to exist, to create
Twan – creation
Odan – creator, artist, artisan

Ado - to be created
Adon – creature, creation, created being or object
Wotta – creature, created thing, work of art

Toba – to be beautiful
Toban – beauty
Ozpan – a beautiful woman or thing, decoration