Sunday, May 27, 2018

The Linguistic landscape of the Pre-Imperial era

The ancestors of the imperials came first to the marshy coasts of what later became Sueldon. This is reflected in the Paiodd word for ‘city’ mess, which, as noted by the famous imperial linguist Holwess Aliss, is likely derived from the same origin as the word meass itself, meaning ‘coast’. Those who settled along the Sueldonian coast later expanded west along the coast, north to the marshlands surrounding the Dog’s Ear Bay, and north into the plains and lowlands.
This eventually gave rise to several divergent languages among the coastal settlers, and in fact those who migrated to the lowlands began to diverge more greatly from their coastal ancestors, eventually establishing their own unique identity.The lowlanders also began to expand, further north and west into the forests and the highlands beyond. This established a still more divergent highland group, who also participated in subsequent expansion into other highland areas.
Thus, when Galeadd Viress rose to become emperor and united the various peoples under his nacent empire, there were many groups throughout the realm. These groups are descended from the major three: Coastal, Lowland, and Highland. A categorized list is as follows. Each group had its own unique culture and language, and thus this is also a list of the languages that existed before the empire. All are related, though divergent enough to be unintelligible to even the most closely neighboring groups. Within each major grouping, the language groups are listed from West to East, South to North.

Coastal

Bayspeech
- West
- Southwest
- N
- East
Sueldonian
- West
- East
Marshland
- South
- North

Lowland

Sienan
Rolanish
Muralian
Honalian

Highland

Virestian
Culadian
Woodland
- West
- East
West Honalian
Alavolian

In addition, it must be noted that there were the remnants of indigenous groups, though these had been largely pushed to the margins of the land by the ever-expanding Coastal, Lowland, and Highland groups. There were also enclaves under Parinali influence, and especially to the East, the Barbarian groups, many of whom resist imperial rule to this day.
Viress succeeded in uniting all of the major groups related by common ancestry to his own Virestian stock, the Coastal and Lowland groups as well as the Highlanders, and was even successful in bringing some of the indigenous, Parinali, and the Westernmost of the Barbarian tribes into the fold.

Saturday, December 16, 2017

The origin of stem-changing nominal morphology in Paiodd

Paiodd has what I call verbal and nominal inflections, differing in both the quality of the root vowel and the voicing of the final consonant. The verbal might also be called 'adverbial' since those are the functions it covers - modifying the verb, while the nominal is essentially a genitive, modifying other nouns. I usually define them as indicating that the nouns is related to the verb or another noun, respectively, with additional suffixes specifying the nature of that relationship.

I surmise that the Canodd system was a little different, with what I am calling "open" and "closed" inflection, where open-inflection indicates that the noun is somehow dependent on another word, either noun or verb, while the closed-inflection indicates that the noun is the head of a noun-phrase. This often means it is an argument of the verb, but not necessarily.

As an example of how it works, if we were to say "The tall, ugly man's blue felt hat" the words for "tall" and "ugly" would be nouns in the open-inflection, while "man" would be closed-inflection. Likewise "blue" and "felt" would be open-inflection, while "hat" would be closed. The closed-inflection words are not necessarily arguments of the verb (though in context, it is likely that "hat" would be) and consequently both open-inflection and closed-inflection nouns can take the particles that specify the exact relationship between the inflected noun and whatever it modifies.

All that to say that the system is as follows:

Paiodd verbal-inflection < Canodd open-inflection

Verbal inflection marked by "weakened" vowel and voiced final consonant in Paiodd, while in Canodd, the open-inflection is the marked form, and closed is unmarked. The specific marker is a suffixed -ə, which triggers intervocalic voicing, accounting for the voicing change in the later verbal-inflection. I had been thinking of the vowel change as a sort of lenition, but I just consulted Trask on the matter, and, as I should have known, lenition is a process affecting consonants only.


Even so, the idea of hierarchy of vowels according to perceived “ strength” is a pretty essential one to Paiodd and its antecedents, and thus will remain.

Some examples:

Paiodd togg 'shape, form' VBL tag-, NML toc- < Canodd *tok, OPEN *tagə, CLSD *tok
P. budd 'blade' VBL bod- NML but- < C. *put, OPEN *pode, CLSD *put
P. cadd 'body of water' VBL ced-, NML cat- < C. *kat, OPEN *kedə, CLSD *kat

NOTE: This does not account for changes in word-initial consonants. I have a few ideas for that, but for the moment, I have simply assumed the underlying consonants are the voiceless equivalents of their Paiodd reflexes, which in some cases means no change.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Why Grammatical Gender?

It's been a while, but since this topic came up again on one of the facebook conlanging groups, I thought I'd fire up the old blogspot once again to bring you - a link to another blog! Seriously, though, give it a read. It has some good insights as to what grammatical gender does in languages, which might help you decide whether or not it's for you in your own conlanging.
http://miniatureconlangs.blogspot.mx/2015/02/grammatical-gender.html

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

FLEx for Conlangs, Part 3

Here's the third installment of my blog series on using SIL's Fieldworks Language Explorer for recording, organizing, and developing your conlang. It's the second video, but the recording ended up being over an hour long! To avoid boring you all to death, I broke it up into six shorter chunks. Below you will find links with short descriptions of which parts of the program each video deals with. I apologize in advance for choppy transitions and sudden beginnings - I am by no means a professional (or even amateur) video editor! All of these videos deal with the "Lexicon Edit" functions. Click on the numbers to follow the links. The next video(s) will focus on the "Text and Words" tab, and the very useful things you can do with it!

3-1: The Entries pane, organizing columns, filters

3-2: Entry pane, part 1. Covers everything in the Entry pane before "Senses".

3-3: Entry pane, part 2. Senses, Variants, Examples, etc.

3-4: Lexicon edit functions concluded. Adding words and associated functions.

3-5: Browse and Dictionary functions

3-6: Collect Words, Classified Dictionary, and Bulk Edit. Conclusion.

Saturday, September 12, 2015

FLEx for Conlangs, Part 2

This video features a general overview of what FLEx has to offer, and some thoughts on how they can be useful for conlangers. Check it out here:

FLEx for Conlangs: Overview

Next week, I'll specifically go over the Lexicon features, which is probably where most of you will spend the majority of your time.

Thursday, September 3, 2015

Using FLEx for Conlangs, Part 1: Importing a Lexicon

I hope that this posts and others in the series will be helpful to fellow conlangers. I've been using SIL's FLEx to keep track of my lexicon(s) for over a year now, and I've found it quite helpful. I hope to explain in more detail throughout this series the various features and how they can be used for conlanging. To start, though, you might be asking "What if I already have a lexicon in another format?" This first post in the series will hopefully help you overcome that obstacle.

Before we get to that, though, let me direct you to where you can obtain FLEx, for free (SIL's good like that, providing their software to the Linguistic community for free): http://www.sil.org/resources/software_fonts/flex

Once you've downloaded and installed FLEx, and created your project, you're ready to import your lexicon!

When you first open FLEx, you should see a screen like this (yours shouldn't have any previous projects, of course):


As you might have guessed, choose "Create a new project". Now you should see this:



You'll want to type in the name of your project, probably the name of your conlang, though you could always call it "Joe's Super-Awesome-Never-Before-Seen Basket Full of Amazingness", if you felt so inclined. I'm going to call mine "Sample Projectish":


Then click OK. But you're not done yet! Now you'll get this:




It's up to you, of course, but one feature of FLEx is that you can also categorize and take notes regarding cultural aspects. I've gone ahead and said OK to the Enhanced OCM for each of my projects. In a future post, I'll try to explain how some of that works, too. But for now, let's get into the program itself. Once you've made your choice regarding whether to include OCM or not, you should have a shiney new FLEx project open, that looks like this: 


You're now ready to import whatever lexicon you already have. To do so, in the top left hand corner, click File>Import, which should pull up this list:

Unfortunately, I'm not familiar with options other than Standard Format Lexicon. I probably should explore a bit more and figure things out, but for now, I'll share what I know, which involves importing data from an Excel chart. So, if I were you, I would go ahead and click on Standard Format Lexicon. This opens the following screen in the middle of your FLEx project:



It's recommended that you backup the project before continuing, but since you have nothing there, so far, I wouldn't worry about it too much. The next screen is where you want to worry. You have the option of choosing a file to use. Unfortunately, I haven't had much success with simply importing a straight up Excel file. But what has worked has been copying and pasting excel data into a plaintext file (.txt). Before doing that, however, you'll need to make sure you have appropriate markers in place, so that your data will go to the correct place in FLEx. This may depend on how complex your existing lexicon is. If you simply have the word in your conlang and a gloss in your native language, you only need to know the two markers \lx (which puts the word in your conlang into the 'Lexeme Form' column) and \ge (this stands for 'Gloss: English', so it will be different if your glosses are in your native language, but it shouldn't make too much of a difference - this marker will send your glosses to the 'Gloss' column). 

If you do have more complex entries in your existing lexicon, there is a list of appropriate markers available here: http://fieldworks.sil.org/wp-content/TechnicalDocs/Technical%20Notes%20on%20SFM%20Database%20Import.pdf
A list of mapping markers is available on page 4 of the document. You can include things such as part of speech, example sentences, and so on.

Using the appropriate markers, I would insert a column before each section, write in the appropriate marker into the first cell, and copy and paste it into the rest of the column. That should look something like this (These examples are from Omaya, one of my conlangs):


From this point, it gets a little bit labor intensive. If you have a huge lexicon, I'm sorry (the first time I did this was with a lexicon of over 3000 words)! There may be an easier way to do it, but I haven't figured it out yet (or maybe I did with that first time, but it's been a while and I've quite forgotten!).

The next step is to copy and paste your Excel data into a plaintext file. Alternatively, you could simply save it as a plain text file (.txt). Now the laborious part: I haven't been able to get the import to work without having the \lx word directly above the \ge gloss! That is I have had to go in and press  enter before every single instance of \lx! That is, given a text file that has the following:

\ge "all, every" \lx la


\ge and \lx h'
\ge animal \lx inwalu
\ge appearance \lx holu
\ge arrow \lx arwu
\ge ask \lx se

I have had to make it look like this, instead:

\ge "all, every"
\lx la
\ge and
\lx h'
\ge animal
\lx inwalu
\ge appearance
\lx holu
\ge arrow
\lx arwu
\ge ask
\lx se

Once you've done that horribly tedious, intensive part, things are much easier. Save the .txt file where you can find it again, and return to FLEx. Click 'Next' after the initial import screen, and you should see one that looks like this:



Click on the square with the ellipsis (...) and find the appropriate file. Since it's a text file, you'll have to choose the scrolldown option 'All Files':



Find your Text file, select it, then click 'Next' (you could really go ahead and click 'Finish', because this should work at this point, but you might want to make sure the markers you've used show up in the 'Key Markers' screen).

On the 'Content Mapping' page, and the  'Key markers' page, make sure all of the markers you're using show up, like so: 


And the next page, like so:


The next page won't have anything on it, so you might as well go ahead and click 'Finish'. You should now see an option to 'Generate Report', like this:


Go ahead and click on that (you have no other option, anyway), and you should be taken to a webpage that gives you either the correct number of items that you have in your lexicon, or an error message. If it's an error, you might have to adjust some settings, and I don't necessarily know what they are. It should be fine, though, and you should see this: 


If this is what you see and everything is in order, go back into FLEx and click 'Next', then 'Finish' (if you don't want to see the same report again, click on the checkmark in the box that reads 'Display final report' before you click 'Finish'). You should see a processing bar, then, voila! your FLEx project is filled with all your beautiful words!


I hope this is helpful to all my fellow conlangers out there! If you have any questions or, even better, if you find a way to make this process easier, let me know in the comments!

Next post, I'll go over some of the basic features of FLEx, including how to enter new words, the fields in an entry, etc. Or maybe it would be better to do a general overview first. I'll think about it and get back to you soon!


EDIT: J Diego Suárez Hernandez provides this tip:

There is a trivial way of adding newlines (~ pressing 'enter') before every \lx with many text editors.

If you are using Notepad++ (a free lightweight text editor similar to Windows' Notepad but with tons of useful features, like being able to edit se
veral documents in tabs on the same window), you have to:
- copy your text (or table) to it,
- go to 'Replace' in the 'Search' menu (or press its keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+H)
- Search for " \lx" (space, backslash, l, x; without the quotes)
- Write "\n\lx "(backslash, n, backslash, l, x)
- Press the "Replace" all button.

This will replace every occurrence of a space followed by \lx with a newline (represented as "\n") and "\lx" at once.

This can also be done in other editors. For instance, OpenOffice Writer and LibreOffice Writer let you do the same but you have to mark "regular expresions" under the "more options" tab in the search&replace dialogue.



Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Aitta Verb Derivations Charted!

After working on developing the derivational morphology of verbs in Aitta, I decided to chart out all the verbs I have so far, and their derivative forms, so that I could see what vocabulary I already have. I will need to replace some other words in the lexicon now that I've worked this system out more fully. I've also realized that the form which adds an argument, which I had been thinking of as applicative (when it didn't make an intransitive verb transitive), can also be causative, depending on the semantics of the verb involved. Here's the chart! If you spot any errors or have any suggestions for more specific meanings, or if you think an additive form should be applicative rather than causative, or vice versa, let me know! Some of the verbs that started out passive don't have very good definitions in their subtracted argument form, which is something I need to work on.



Base
Nominal derivative
Subordinate form
Subordinate derivative
Default transitivity
Chi – chew
Chin – chewing
Ich
Ichcha – tooth, chewer
Applicative or Causative
Chia – cause to chew
Chian – causing to chew (possibly used to describe food as chewy)
Ija
Ijan – what causes to chew
Passive
Aji – be chewed
Ajin – being chewed
Aich
Aichcha – that which is chewed






Chiga – bear children
Chigan – child bearing
ichka
Ichkan – mother

Chigo – cause to bear children, impregnate
Chigon – pregnancy, impregnation
ichko
Ichkon – father, semen

Ajiga – be born, be pregnant
Ajigan – birth, pregnancy
aichka
Aichkan – child






Chitas – scratch
Chitsa – scratch (n.)
ichtas
Ichtasso – claw, scratcher

Chitazo – cause to scratch
Chitso – causing to scratch
ichtazo
Ichtazon – what causes to scratch, an itch (?)

Ajitas – be scratched
Ajitsa – being scratched
aichtas
Aichtasso – what is scratched






Cho – pass time
Chon – passing time, passage of time, time, moment, period of time
Och
Ochcha – diversion, occupation, that which passes time

Choa – cause to pass time, pass time for something
Choan – causing to pass time, occupation
Oja
Ojan – diversion, occupation, that which causes time to pass.

Ajo – (time) be passed
Ajon – time passed, the past
Woch
Wochcha – time passed, the past






Choma – be much
Choman – much, many things
Ochma
Ochman – much, many people/things

Chomo – cause to be much, increase
Chomon – an increase
Ochmo
Ochmon – rate, that which increases

Ajoma – be increased
Ujoma
Ajoman – an increase?
Ujoman
Wochma
Wochman – that which is increased






kina – wrap, encircle
kinan – a circle
Inga
Ingan – a belt, bracelet, ring

kino – cause to encircle, or encircle, wrap for something
kinon – causing to encircle, figuratively engagement to be married?
Ingo
Ingon – an engagement ring or bracelet?

Agina – being wrapped, encircled
Aginan – surrounded?
Ainga
Aingan – that which is surrounded, a glade, meadow, island(?), clearing






Halo – light a fire
Halon – lighting, ignition
Ahlo
Ahlon – fire

Halwa – cause to light, light for something, use flint or other source of ignition to light a fire
Halwan – causing to light, lighting for something, the use of flint to start a fire
Ahlwa
Ahlwan – that which causes to light, spark, match, flint

Ihalo – be lit
Ihalon – being lit, burning and giving light or warmth
Yahlo
Yahlon – a fire, firewood, kindling






Hanok – begin
Hango – beginning
Ahnok
Ahnokka – beginner, initiate (an army rank, perhaps)

Hanoga – cause to begin, beginning of something
Hangwa – initiation, beginning of something
Ahngoa/ahngwa
Ahngoan – initiator, that which causes to begin, motive, purpose

Ihanok – be begun
Ihango – being begun
Yahngo
Yahngon – that which is begun






Hi – shine
Hin – shining, light
Ih
Ihha – that which shines, ray or beam of light, light

Hia – cause to shine, reflect, shine for/off something
Hian – reflection, causing to shine
Iha
Ihan – that which reflects, pool of water, mirror

Ahi – be shone
Ahin – being shone, reflection, glaring
Aih
Aihha – that which is shone, reflection, glare






Hila – emerge
Hilan – emergence
Ihla
Ihlan – that which emerges, fig: revelation?

Hilo – cause to emerge, pull or drive out, fig: reveal
Hilon – causing to emerge, revelation
Ihlo
Ihlon – that which causes to emerge, push, pull, drive, motivation, desire, fig: revelatory vision

Ahila – be emerged, fig: be revealed
Ahilan – being emerged or revealed, fig: spiritual truth
Aihla
Aihlan – that which is emerged or revealed, fig: spiritual truth






Ka – write
Kan – writing
Ak
Akko – that which writes, writer, author, stylus

Keo – cause to write, write for/to someone
Keon – writing for someone, message
Ago
Agon – that which writes for someone, secretary

Iga – be written
Igan – being written
Yak
Yakko – that which is written, book, letter






Kabi – enact
Kabin – enactment, action
Akpi
Akpin – that which enacts, actor

Kabya – cause to enact, decree
Kabyan – causing to enact, force of law, authority of a decree
Akpia
Akpian – that which causes to enact, decree, law, lawmaker

Igabi – be enacted
Igabin – being enacted, adherence to decrees or laws?
Yakpi
Yakpin – that which is enacted, law, action, behavior






Kali – be long
Kalin – length
Agli
Aglin – that which is long

Kalya – lengthen, cause to be long, stretch
Kalyan – stretch, lengthening, extent
Aglia
Aglian – that which lengthens, stretch, extender

Igali – be lengthened
Igalin – being lengthened, extending, extent
Yagli
Yaglin – that which is lengthened or extended






Kalot – collect, gather
Kaldo – collection, gathering
Aklot
Aklotta – collector, gatherer, that which collects or gathers, meeting, council?

Kaloda – cause to collect or gather
Kaldoa – causing to collect or gather
Akloda
Aklodan – that which causes to collect or gather, meeting, council, or perhaps more an invitation to a meeting or council

Igalot – be collected, gathered
Igaldo – being collected or gathered
Yaklot
Yaklotta – collection, meeting, council






Karo - work
Karon – working, job, work
Agro
Agron – worker

Karwa – cause to work, employ
Karwan – employment, conscription
Agroa
Agroan – employer, supervisor, chief, foreman

Igaro – be worked, employed
Igaron – job, being worked, being employed
Yagro
Yagron – employee, that which is worked, that which is employed






Kazo – ask
Kazon – question
Akso
Akson – asker, questioner, fig: spiritual seeker

Kazwa – cause to ask, ask for something
Kazwan – request
Akswa/askoa
Akswan – that which requests, requestor, inquiry

Igazo – be asked
Igazon – being asked, questioning
Yakso
Yakson – that which is asked, questionee, person questioned or asked






Kila – belong
Kilan – belonging, possession
Igla
Iglan – possession, that which belongs, territory (of a nation, for instance)

Kilo – cause to belong, acquire(?)
Kilon – causing to belong, acquisition, purchase
Iglo
Iglon – that which causes to belong, acquisition, seller, deed/title

Agila – be acquired(?)
Agilan – acquisition
Aigla
Aiglan – that which is acquired, item under negotiation






Kinar – bring
Kinda/kinra/kirna – bringing, offering (?)
Ingar
Ingarro – bringer, offerer

Kinaro – cause to bring, bring for something, offer
Kinaron – offering
Ingaro
Ingaron – offerer, worshipper

Aginar – be brought
Aginda/aginra/agirna – being offered
Aingar
Aingarro – offering, that which is offered






Kinat – connect
Kinda – connection
Ingat
Ingatto – that which connects

Kinado – cause to connect, attach
Kinadon – attaching, attachment
Ingado
Ingadon – that which causes to connect, attacher

Aginat – be connected
Aginatto – connection, attachment
Aingat
Aingatto – attachment, that which is attached, connected






Ko – have
Kon – having, possession
Ok
Okka – owner, possessor

Kwa – cause to have, give
Kwan – causing to have
Oga
Ogan – that which causes to have

Ago – be had
Ugo
Agon - Being had
Ugon
Wok
Wokka – that which is owned, had, or possessed






Koda – cut
Kodan – cut, cutting
Okta
Oktan – cutter, knife, sword

Kodo – cause to cut, sharpen
Kodon – sharpening
Okto
Okton – sharpener

Agoda – be cut
Ugoda
Agodan – being cut
Ugodan
Wokta
Woktan – cut (of meat or perhaps a minor injury)






Koja – be poor
Kojan – poverty
Okcha
Okchan – poor person

Kojo – impoverish, cause to be poor
Kojon – impoverishment
Okcho
Okchon – that which impoverishes, bad luck, or reckless spending

Agoja – be made poor
Ugoja
Agojan – being made poor
Ugojan
Wokcha
Wokchan – someone made poor






Kola – become angry
Kolan – anger
Ogla
Oglan – angry person

Kolo – to anger, enrage
Kolon – causing anger
Oglo
Oglon – trigger for anger, cause of anger

Agola – be made angry
Ugola
Agolan – being made angry
Ugolan
Wogla
Woglan – someone made angry






La – to liberate
Lan – liberation
Al
Allo - liberator

Lo – to liberate from, to cause to liberate
Lon – cause of liberation, something that is liberated from?
Alo
Alon – that which causes to liberate, that which is liberated from, slavery, bonds

Ila – be liberated
Ilan – being liberated, liberation, freedom
Yal
Yallo – freeman, that which is liberated






Lado – be tall
Ladon – tallness, height
Aldo
Aldon – that which is tall, tall person, giant, tower

Ladwa – cause to be tall, heighten, increase height
Ladwan – causing to be tall, erection, construction, or physical growth, growth spurt
Aldoa
Aldwa
Aldoan – that which causes to be tall, heightens, erects, so perhaps used of construction equipment
Aldwan

Ilado – be heightened
Iladon – being heightened, construction
Yaldo
Yaldon – that which is heightened, made tall, a building or a structure, or a growing young man, a tower






Lagir – require, cost
Lagri – requirement, cost
Algir
Algirra – that which requires or cost something, an item for sale or under negotiation

Lagira – cause to require or cost, to set a price
Lagria – causing to require or cost
Algira
Algiran – that which causes to require or cost, price setting, market fluctuations

Ilagir – to be costly
Ilagri – being costly, treasure
Yalgir
Yalgirra – that which is costly, treasure, wealth






Lida – to sell
Lidan – selling, sale
Ilda
Ildan – seller, vendor

Lido – cause to sell, sell to someone
Lidon – sale to someone
Ildo
Ildon – seller to someone

Alida – be sold
Alidan – being sold
Aildo
Aildon – something being sold, product, good(s)






Loja – make jewelry, shape or cut, craft
Lojan – jewelry-making, jewel-crafting
Olja
Oljan – jeweler

Lojo – cause to make jewelry
Lojon – commissioning of jewelry
Oljo
Oljon – customer requesting a special commission

Aloja – be crafted (used of jewelry, or perhaps figuratively to describe a woman’s beauty)
Alojan – being crafted
Wolja
Woljan – jewelry, that which is crafted






Lora – to rule, have and exercise authority
Loran – rule, authority
Olda
Orra
Oldan – ruler, king
Orran

Loro – to cause to rule, to inaugurate, crown, give power to, OR to rule over something, to have specific authority
Loron – inauguration, coronation OR designated authority, governorship
Oldo
Orro
Oldon – divine right, one who presides over a coronation OR one who has specific authority, governor, minister

Alora – To be ruled
Ulora
Aloran – subjection, submission
Uloran
Wolda
Worra
Woldan – subject
Worran






Lorak – be cruel
Lorga – cruelty, cruel deed or action
Oldak
Ollak
Oldakko
Ollakko – cruel person

Lorago – be cruel to someone, do cruelty to someone
Lorgo – cruel action intended to hurt someone
Oldago
Ollago
Oldagon – someone who intentionally hurts people
Ollagon

Alorak – suffer cruelty
Ulorak
Alorga – suffering cruelty
Ulorga
Woldak
Wollak
Woldakko – someone who suffers cruelty, victim
Wollakko






Mabor – to compare
Mabro – comparison
Ambor
Amborra – one who compares

Mabora – to compare for something or someone, to cause to compare
Mabroa – causing to compare, a comparison for a reason or for someone
Mabrwa
Ambora
Amboran – one who compares for a reason, one who causes to compare

Imabor – be compared
Imabro – something compared, metaphor or simile
Yambor
Yamborra – something which is compared, subject of a metaphor or simile






Mirap – to promise
Mirba – a promise
Imrap
Imrappo – that which promises, an oath, oathtaker

Mirabo – to make a promise to someone, to get engaged to be married
Mirboa – a promise made to someone, engagement to be married, commitment
Mirbwa
Imrabo
Imrabon – fiancé(e), one who proposes marriage, one who makes a promise to someone, one who is committed

Amirap – to be promised, to be engaged
Amirba – engagement
Aimrap
Aimrappo – fiancé(e)






Mirat – to stream, flow
Mirda – stream, flow
Imrat
Imratto – river, water course

Mirado – cause to stream, flow, irrigate, initiate a flow of water
Mirdo – irrigation, causing water to flow
Imrado
Imradon – irrigation ditch, something that causes water to flow, aqueduct

Amirat – be streamed
Amirda – water that is streamed, current
Aimrat
Aimratto – water from an aqueduct or irrigation ditch, current






Mo – to be located
Mon – place, location
Om
Omma – place, site, land, address (?)

Moa – to locate
Mwa
Moan – settlement, causing to be located
Mwan
Oma
Oman – pathfinder, navigator, map, map user

Amo – to be placed, found in a specific place
Umo
Amon – settlement, location in a specific place, habitat
Umon
Wom
Womma – something or someone located in a specific place, resident, denizen






Moda – to take
Modan – taking, acquisition, theft (implication that it was not previously owned or the owner was unknown)
Omda
Omdan – thief, someone who takes

Modo – to cause to take, to take from someone
Modon – theft, kidnapping
Omdo
Omdon – thief, someone who takes from someone

Amoda – to be taken
Umoda
Amodan – being taken, capture
Umodan
Womda
Womdan – someone or something taken, spoils, booty, captive






Moga – to come
Mogan – arrival, coming
Onga
Ongan – Someone who arrives, arriving passenger or traveler

Mogo – to cause to come, attract, woo or seduce, cause to enter, invite
Mogon – attraction, entrance, invitation
Ongo
Ongon – attraction (place or feature that attracts), desirable attribute, seduction, invitation, inviter

Amoga – to be come, to come (without reference to the place)
Umoga
Amogan – coming, arrival, being come
Umogan
Wonga
Wongan – someone or something which is come, visitor






Nabo – to open
Nabon – opening
Anbo
Ambo
Anbon – opener, opening in something, lid or clasp
Ambon

Nabwa – to cause to open, open to something
Nabwan – opening in something, causing to open
Anboa/anbwa
Amboa/Ambwa
Ambwan – opener, that which opens to something, door, portal

Inabo – to be opened
Inabon – being opened
Yambo
Yambon – that which is opened, open container or vessel






Nal – to pertain to
Nallo – pertinence, belonging to, ownership
And
All
Ando – That which pertains to something or someone, possession, belonging
Allo

Nalo – to cause to pertain to someone
Nalon – causing to pertain to someone, deed, right of ownership
Ando
Allo
Andon – deed, title
Allon

Inal – to be owned
Inalo – ownership
Yando
Yallo
Yandon
Yallon – possession, belonging, that which is owned






Nagor – to be able
Nagro – power, ability
Angor
Angorra – Able person, powerful person

Nagora – to give ability to, to teach a skill
Nagroa – teaching, instruction, apprenticeship
Nagrwa
Angroa
Angroan – teacher, instructor, master (to an apprentice)

Inagor – to be given ability, to be taught or instructed
Inagro – experience, lesson, learning, apprenticeship
Yangor
Yangorra – Apprentice, learner, student






Namok – to command
Nango – command, orders
Angok
Angokka – commander

Namoga – to give command to someone
Nangoa – giving command to someone, appointment
Nangwa
Angoga
Angogan – appointer, someone or something which gives command to someone, letter of appointment to command

Inamok – to be commanded
Inango – being commanded, army ranks
Yangok
Yangokka – troops, people under another’s command






Naro – to fill
Naron – filling, fullness
Ando
Arro
Andon
Arron – servant, someone who fills, stuffing, fig: wealth and extravagance

Narwa – to cause to fill, to pour or to stuff
Narwan – causing to fill, filling, sustenance
Arroa
Arroan – That which causes to fill, satisfaction, fig: wealth

Inaro – to be filled, to be full
Inaron – being full, satisfaction
Yarro
Yarron – someone or something which is full or satisfied, fig: wealthy person






Narop – to burn
Narbo – burning
Arrop
Arroppa – fire, flame, that which burns, torch

Naroba – to cause to burn, to light, ignite
Naroban – lighting, ignition of a fire or flame
Arroba
Arroban – igniter, kindling, flint

Inarop – to be lit, to be burnt
Inarbo – being burnt
Yarrop
Yarroppa – someone or something that is burnt, fuel for a fire






Ni – to be instead
Nin – contrast
In
Inna – that which is instead, a contrast, contraster

Nia – to substitute
Nian – substitute
Ina
Inan – substitute

Ani – to represent
Anin – representation
Ain
Ainna – Representative, example






Nigam – to imagine
Nigma – imagination
Ingam
Ingammo – visionary, creator, artist

Nigamo – to cause to imagine, to imagine for something or someone, to see a prophetic vision, to envision
Nigmo – vision, prophecy
Ingamo
Ingamon – prophet, visionary, oracle, or perhaps narcotics that induce prophetic visions

Anigam – to be imagined
Anigma – an idea, a plan, a vision (in the sense of an idea with an end goal, or the ability to envision an end goal)
Aingam
Aingammo – idea, plan, goal, purpose






Nija – to shine
Nijan – shining, light, brilliance
Inja
Injan – lamp, torch, something that shines

Nijo – to polish, cause to shine
Nijon – polish, brilliance
Injo
Injon – polish, polishing agent, polisher

Anija – to be polished or shined
Anijan – being polished or shined
Ainja
Ainjan – something polished or shined, metal, bronze(?)






Nilak – to clean
Nilga – cleaning, cleanliness
Illak
Illakko – cleaner, maid

Nilago – to cause to clean, to clean for something or someone, to clean in order to prepare for an event
Nilgo – causing to clean, cleaning in preparation for an event
Illago
Illagon – one who cleans to prepare for an event

Anilak – to be cleaned, to be redeemed, forgiven
Anilakko – being cleaned, redemption
Aillak
Aillakko – one who is cleaned, a believer






Nimak – to walk
Ninga – walking, a walk
Nimga
Innak
Imnak
Innakko - walker

Nimago – to walk to somewhere, to cause to walk
Ningo – a path
Innago
Innagon – seeker, someone who walks towards a goal

Animak – to be walked
Aninga – being walked, way
Ainnak
Ainnakko – something walked, a path, a way






Ninach – to assassinate
Ninja – assassination
Innach
Innachcho – assassin

Ninajo – to cause to assassinate, to order an assassination, to call a hit
Ninjo – order for assassination, hit
Innajo
Innajon – hitman, hired assassin

Aninach – to be assassinated
Aninja – being assassinated, the action of a hit on someone
Ainnach
Ainnachcho – target of assassination






No – to be single, to be one
Non – one
On
Onna – that which is one, a single item or person

Noa – cause to be single, unite
Nwa
Noan – unity, singleness
Ona
Onan – uniter, one who unites, or one who causes to be single

Ano – being united, made single
Uno
Anon – unity, the result of being united
Unon
Won
Wonna – that which is united, group, body, confederation






Noda – to dawn
Nodan - dawning
Onda
Ondan – dawn, new day

Nodo – to cause to dawn, to dawn for something
Nodon – dawning of something, beginning
Ondo
Ondon – new dawn, new beginning of something

Anoda – to be dawned
Unoda
Anodan – being dawned, beginning, initiation
Unodan
Wonda
Wondan – beginning, dawning, initiation






Pa – to see
Pan – sight, vision
Ap
Appo – seer, one who sees, fig: eye

Po – to cause to see, fig: to open the eyes
Pon – sudden vision, insight
Abo
Abon – that which causes to see, fig: an awakening, an epiphany

Iba – to be seen, to be visible
Iban – being seen, visibility
Yap
Yappo – that which is seen, a vision, a sight






Pado – to carry
Padon – carrying
Avto
Avton – bearer, carrier

Padwa – to cause to carry, to load, to burden
Padwan – load, burden, charge
Avtwa
Avtwan – loader, burdener

Ibado – to be carried
Ibadon – being carried, load, burden
Yavto
Yavton – burden, load, charge, that which is carried






Pago – to run
Pagon – running
Avko
Avkon – runner, messenger

Pagwa – to cause to run, to frighten, to pursue
Pagwan – fright, pursuit
Avkwa
Avkwan – fightener, pursuer

Ibago – to be run
Ibagon – being run
Yavko
Yavkon – that which is run, a race, a route






Palo – to love
Palon – love
Ablo
Ablon – lover

Palwa – to cause to love, to attract, to enthrall, to flirt
Palwan – passion, attraction
Abloa
Abloan – attracter, flirt, love spell

Ibalo – to be loved
Ibalon – being loved
Yablo
Yablon – beloved, object of love or desire






Palom – value
Palmo – value
Ablom
Ablomma – valuer

Paloma – to evaluate
Paloman – evaluation
Abloma
Abloman – evaluator

Ibalom – to be valued
Ibalmo – being valued
Yablom
Yablomma – that which is valued, wealth, riches, treasure






Pano – to be all
Panon – eternity, all of something
Abno
Abnon – all of something

Panwa – to be made all, to complete
Panwan – completion, wholeness
Abnoa
Abnoan – completer

Ibano – to be made all
Ibanon – being made all
Yabno
Yabnon – that which is made complete, a set, a full group






Paro – to be double
Paron – two
Abro
Abron – a pair, a couple

Parwa – to double, to make double
Parwan – doubling, coupling
Abroa
Abroan – doubler, coupler, fig: marriage vows or the sexual act

Ibaro – to be made double
Ibaron – being made double
Yabro
Yabron – that which is made double, a couple, fig: sexual partners






Pi – to wear, to be decorated
Pin – wearing, vestment, clothing, all that a person wears to decorate themselves – clothing, make-up, jewelry and accessories
Ip
Ippa – wearer

Pia – to decorate
Pian – decoration
Iba
Iban – decorator

Abi – to be decorated
Abin – a decorated object or item, or home
Aiba
Aiban – a decorated item, object, or home






Pida – to read
Pidan – reading, fig: education
Ivta
Ivtan – reader

Pidai – to cause to read, to educate
Pidain – causing to read, educating
Ivtai
Ivtain – educator, professor

Abida – to be read
Abidan – being read
Aivta
Aivtan – that which is read, a book, a piece of writing, literature






Piga – to bake
Pigan – baking
Ivka
Ivkan – baker

Pigo – to cause to bake, to bake in an oven
Pigon – baking
Ivko
Ivkon – oven

Abiga – to be baked
Abigan – being baked, baked goods
Aivka
Aivkan – baked goods, bread






Po – to owe
Pon – debt
Op
Oppa – debtor

Pwa – to cause to owe, to credit
Pwan – credit
Oba
Oban – creditor

Abo – to be owed
Ubo
Abon – debt
Ubon
Wop
Woppa – that which is owed, credited amount






Poba – to buy
Poban – buying, shopping
Ovpa
Ovpan – buyer

Pobo – to cause to buy, negotiate
Pobon – negotiation, business, transaction
Ovpo
Ovpon – negotiator, that which causes to buy

Aboba – to be bought
Uboba
Aboban – being bought
Uboban
Wovpa
Wovpan – that which is bought, item under negotiation, item for sale, product, wares






Polak – to block
Polga – blocking, a block, a blockade
Oblak
Oblakko – Blocker, wall or obstacle, barricade

Polago – to cause to block
Polagon – blockade, barricade
Oblago
Oblagon – barricade, barrier

Ubolak – to be blocked
Ubolga – being blocked
Woblak
Woblakko – That which is blocked






Poza – to show
Pozan – demonstration, display
Ovza
Ovzan – display, demonstrator

Pozo – to cause to show, to show to someone, to reveal
Pozon – revelation, causing to show, showing to someone
Ovzo
Ovzon – revealer, that which causes to show

Uboza – to be shown
Ubozan – being shown, displayed
Wovza
Wovzan – item on display, that which is shown






Ra – to cry
Ran – crying, tears, sadness
Ar
Arro – crier, weeper, sad person

Ro – to cause to cry, fig: to sadden
Ron – sadness, cause of crying
Aro
Aron – that which causes to cry, sadness, sad person

Ira – to be cried, to be wept
Iran – being cried or wept
Yar
Yarro – that which is cried or wept, fig: tears, sorrow






Rabo – to fear, to be afraid
Rabon – fear
Arbo
Arbon – one who fears

Rabwa – to cause to fear, to frighten
Rabwa – fright
Arbwa
Arbwan – one who frightens, a monster or demon, a bogeyman

Irabo – to be feared
Irabon – being feared
Yarbo
Yarbon – that which is feared, monster, demon, bogeyman






Rabol – to prefer
Rablo – preference
Arbol
Arbolla – Preferer

Rabola – to cause to prefer, to suggest a better option, to influence, to advise
Rabolan – causing to prefer, suggestion of a better option, advice, influence
Arbola
Arbolan – suggester, one who suggests a better option, advisor

Irabol – to be preferred
Irablo – preference
Yarbol
Yarbolla – that which is preferred, preference






Radi – to envy
Radin – envy
Ardi
Ardin – envier, jealous person

Radya – cause to envy
Radyan – causing to envy
Ardya
Ardyan – causer of envy, a person, especially a woman, to whom everyone looks up, but also envies and seeks to emulate

Iradi – to be envied
Iradin – being envied
Yardi
Yardin – one who is envied






Radis  - to be a female relative of
Ratsi – female relationship, sisterhood
Ardis
Ardissa – female relative, sister, aunt, female cousin

Radiza – to cause to be a female relative of (referring to marriage making a spouse’s female relatives one’s own)
Radizan – in-law relationship
Ardiza
Ardizan – female in-laws

Iradis – to be related (of a female)
Iratsi – being related
Yardis
Yardissa – one who is related, sister, aunt, cousin






Radon – to enter, to go in
Razno – entering, entrance
Ardon
Ardonna – enterer, entrance

Radona – to cause to enter, to push, to urge on
Radonan – causing to enter, urging
Ardona
Ardonan – urger, encourager

Iradon – to be entered
Irazno – being entered
Yardon
Yardonna – entrance






Ranos – sit
Ranossa – sitting, seat
Arnos
Arnossa – sitter

Ranoza – to cause to sit, to set down
Ranozan – causing to sit, setting down
Arnoza
Arnozan – something set down

Iranos – to be sat in, to be set down
Iranossa – being sat in, being set down, seat or chair
Yarnos
Yarnossa – that which is sat in, chair or seat, that which is set down






Ri – to be (to be equivalent, I am a doctor)
Rin – being, position or identification as someone or something
Ir
Irra – being, thing, person

Ria – to cause to be equivalent, to identify, to equate with
Rian – identification or equation of something with something else
Ira
Iran –that which identifies or equates, trait, stereotype

Ari – to be equated
Arin – being equated
Air
Airra – that which is equated or identified with something else






Riga – to manipulate with the fingers, to pick, to pluck, to point
Rigan – picking, plucking, pointing
Irga
Irgan – finger

Rigo – to cause to use the fingers, to use the fingers for or on something
Rigon – causing to use the fingers
Irgo
Irgon – one who causes to use the fingers, fruit to be picked or plucked, a plucked instrument, fingerholes in a flute, etc.

Ariga – to be manipulated by the fingers
Arigan – being manipulated by the fingers
Airga
Airgan – that which is manipulated with the fingers, fruit to be plucked or picked, a stringed instrument, a handle on a cup, door, or other item






Rogal – to be colored
Rogla – color
Orgal
Orgallo – color, that which colors, dye, paint, colored make-up

Rogalo – cause to be colored, to color
Rogalon – causing color, dying agent
Orgalo
Orgalon – dye agent, dyer, painter

Urogal – caused to be colored
Urogla -
Worgal
Worgallo – that which is made to be colored, a painting, a canvas, cloth for dying, etc.






Rola – advance, go forward
Rolan – advancement, direction forwards
Orla
Orlan – advance troops

Rolo – cause to advance, order to advance
Rolon – orders to advance
Orlo
Orlon – commander, one who give orders to advance

Urola – be advanced, be forward
Urolan – forward
Worla
Worlan – one who is advanced, one who is forward, forward line of a battle formation, or an individual soldier therein.






Roma – to kill
Roman – killing, murder
Orma
Orman – killer, murderer

Romo – to cause to kill
Romon – causing to kill
Ormo
Ormon – one who causes to kill

Aroma – to be killed, to die
Uroma
Aroman – death
Uroman
Worma
Worman – dead person, corpse






Rom – be more
Romma – more



Roma – increase
Roman – increase



Urom – be increased
Arom
Uromma – being increased, expansion, population








Rozap – to please
Rospa – pleasure
Orzap
Orzappo – one who pleases, fig: a prostitute, or a desirable woman

Rozabo – to cause to please
Rozabon – causing to please
Orzabo
Orzabon – one who causes to please, fig: a pimp, perhaps

Urozap – to be pleased
Urospa – being pleased
Worzap
Worzappo – one who is pleased, fig: client of a prostitute






Sa – to be not
San – negation, denial
As
Assi – negator

Sai – to cause to be not, to negate to deny
Sain – denial, causing to be not
Azi
Azin – one who denies

Iza – to be denied
Izan – being denied
Yas
Yassi – one who is denied






Sago – to give
Sagon – giving, fig: generosity
Asko
Askon – one who gives, fig: a generous person

Sagwa – to cause to give
Sagwan – causing to give
Askwa
Askwan – one who causes to give

Izago – to be given
Izagon – being given
Yasko
Yaskon – gift, one or something which is given






Si – to be half
Sin – half
Is
Issa – a half

Sia – to halve, divide in two
Sian – division into two
Iza
Izan – divider

Azi – to be divided
Azin – division
Ais
Aissa – that which is halved, that which is divided






Sida – to be a complete set
Sidan – complete set, ten
Ista
Istan – complete set, a full group

Sido – to cause to be a complete set, to finish, complete
Sidon – a finished, completed set
Isto
Iston – one who completes or finishes a set

Azida – to be completed
Azidan – being completed
Aista
Aistan – one which is completed, a multiple of ten(?)






Sija – to think, to decide, to realize
Sijan – thought, decision, realization
Ischa
Ischan – thinker, decider

Sijo – to cause to think, to puzzle
Sijon – a puzzle, an enigma
Ischo
Ischon – puzzle, riddle, enigma

Azija – to be thought, decided, realized
Azijan – a decision reached, a thought or idea
Aischa
Aischan – thought or idea






Sirat – to desire
Sirda – desire
Israt
Isratto – one who desires

Sirado – to cause to desire, to long for
Siradon – desire, longing
Isrado
Isradon – one who causes desire, object of longing

Azirat – to be desired
Aziratto – being desired
Aisrat
Aisratto – one who is desired






So – to be (have the quality of)
Son – quality or attribute
Os
Ossa – one who has a particular quality or attribute

Swa – to cause to have the quality or attribute of, to transform, change into
Swan – causing to have the quality or attribute of, transformation, change
Oza
Ozan – one who causes to have the quality or attribute of, magical force that cause a transformation

Uzo – be made to have specific attributes
Uzon – being made to have specific attributes, transformation, change into something
Wos
Wossa – transformer, changeling, one who is transformed






Sobas – to marry
Sopsa – marriage
Ospas
Ospasso – spouse (used on the wedding day and during the early years of marriage)

Sobazo – to cause to marry, to marry (as in what a priest does)
Sobazon – marriage
Sopso
Ospazo
Ospazon – officiant at a wedding

Uzobas – be married
Uzopsa – being married, marriage
Wospas
Wospasso – spouse, husband or wife (used after time has passed being married)






Sola – forgive a debt, redeem
Solan – cancellation of a debt, redemption
Osla
Oslan – one who cancels a debt, redeemer

Solo – cause to forgive a debt
Solon – causing to forgive a debt
Oslo
Oslon – one who causes to forgive a debt

Uzola – to be cancelled or forgiven of a debt
Uzolan – being cancelled of a debt, redemption, freedom
Wosla
Woslan – one who is redeemed or forgiven






Tabo – to live
Tabon – life
Azpo
Azpon – living thing, animal

Tabwa – to cause to live, to give life, to nurture
Tabwan – causing to live, nurture
Azpwa
Azpwan – that which causes to live, that which gives life

Idabo – to be given life
Idabon – being given life
Yazpo
Yazpon – one given life, a newborn, a young animal






Tagi – to behave
Tagin – behavior
Azki
Azkin – one who behaves

Tagya – to cause to behave, to influence behavior
Tagyan – influence on behavior
Azkya
Azkyan – one who influences behavior, either positively or negatively, a friend

Idagi – to be behaved
Idagin – behavior (in the sense of what is behaved, good or bad)
Yazki
Yazkin – a specific behavior






Tanok – to count
Tango – counting
Aznok
Aznokka – counter, accountant

Tanoga – to count for something, to cause to count
Tanogan – counting for something, causing to count
Tangwa
Aznoga
Aznogan – accountant, designated accountant

Idanok – to be counted
Idango – being counted
Yaznok
Yaznokka – number






Tarok – to be great
Targo – greatness, glory, renown
Adrok
Adrokka – great person, famous person, hero

Taroga – cause to be great, to praise
Tarogan – causing to be great, praise
Targwa
Ardroga
Ardrogan – that which causes to be great, heroic deed, famous act, valor or worth

Idarok – to be made great
Idarokka – being made great
Yadrok
Yadrokka – one who is made great, object of praise






Tano – to hunt
Tanon – hunting, a hunt
Azno
Aznon – hunter

Tanwa – to cause to hunt, to hunt for a reason
Tanwan – causing to hunt
Aznwa
Aznwan – one who causes to hunt, one who hunts something specific

Idano – to be hunted
Idanon – being hunted
Yazno
Yaznon – prey, quarry, that which is hunted






Tazo – be quick
Tazon – quickness, speed
Atso
Atson – one who is quick

Tazwa – to quicken
Tazwan – quickening, hastening
Atswa
Atswan – one who quickens or hastens

Idazo – be hastened or quickened
Idazon – being quickened
Yatso
Yatson – one who is hastened






Ti – to say, speak
Tin – speech
It
Itta – sayer, speaker

Tia – to address, to speak to or for someone or something specific, to orate
Tian – an address, an oration
Ida
Idan – orator, speaker

Adi – to be spoken
Adin – being spoken, speech, word, language
Ait
Aitta – language






Tigar – to extract
Tigra – extraction
Izkar
Izkarro – extractor

Tigaro – to cause to extract, to extract from something
Tigaron – extraction from something
Tigro
Izkaro
Izkaron – that which extracts from something

Adigar – to be extracted
Adigro – being extracted, extract
Aizkar
Aizkarro – extract, especially used for olive oil






Tina – to stand
Tinan – standing, position
Izna
Iznan – one who stands, post

Tino – to cause to stand, support
Tinon – support
Izno
Iznon – support (beams or other structural supports), supporter

Adina – to be stood
Adinan – being stood
Aizna
Aiznan – something that is stood, an altar, a memorial






Tira – to be triple
Tiran – three
Idra
Idran – three of something, group of three

Tiro – to triple, to cause to triple
Tiron – tripling
Idro
Idron – that which triples

Adira – to be tripled
Adiran – being tripled
Aidra
Aidran – that which is tripled






Tirap – to depart, to leave
Tirba – departure
Idrap
Idrappo – departing person, ship, or caravan

Tirabo – to cause to depart, to depart for another place
Tirabon – cause of departure, destination
Tirbo
Idrabo
Idrabon – one who sets out, a traveler with a goal, a pilgrim

Adirap – to be left, to be departed
Adirba – being left, being departed from, origin
Aidrap
Aidrappo – origin, place of origin






Tizap – to visit
Tispa – a visit
Itsap
Itsappo – visitor

Tizabo – to cause to visit, to invite
Tizabon – invitation
Tispo
Itsabo
Itsabon – inviter

Adizap – to be visited
Adispa – being visited, a visit (if you are the one being visited)
Aitsap
Aitsappo – one who is visited, a tourist attraction






To – to exist
Ton – existence
Ot
Otta – one who exists

Twa – to cause to exist, to create
Twan – creation
Oda
Odan – creator, artist, artisan

Ado - to be created
Udo
Adon – creature, creation, created being or object
Udon
Wot
Wotta – creature, created thing, work of art






Toba – to be beautiful
Toban – beauty
Ozpa
Ozpan – a beautiful woman or thing, decoration